Minimalist Machine Derivations

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  • T-to-C Movement: Causes and Consequences. Pesetsky & Torrego (2001).
    Example Instruction stream (clickable) Notes
    (5a) What did Mary buy?
    (5b) *What Mary bought?
    [what:n, q, buy, 'v*', [mary, d], 'Tpast', c_Q] (5a) T to matrix C => do-support.
    (5b) Mary to edge C blocked (FI: exclamatory).
    (5c) *Who did buy the book?
    (5d) Who bought the book?
    [book, the, buy, 'v*', [who, q], 'Tpast', c_Q] No do-support triggered.
    (5c) ruled out by economy.
    (23) What will Mary buy? [what:n, q, buy, 'v*', [mary, d], will, 'T', c_Q] Auxilary will raises to edge of C.
    (24) What did John say that Mary will buy? [what:n, q, buy, 'v*', [mary, d], will, 'T', c_eQ, say, v_unerg, [john, d], 'Tpast', c_Q] Two derivations: (24) T to C realized as that.
    Or that can be omitted. c_eQ hosts wh-movement only.
    (28a) Who did John say will buy the book?
    (28b) *Who did John say that will buy the book?
    [book, the, buy, 'v*', [who, q], will, 'T', c_eQ, say, v_unerg, [john, d], 'Tpast', c_Q] That-trace effect.
    (28b) ruled out by economy.
    (31) Mary thinks that Sue will buy the book
    (33) Mary thinks Sue will buy the book
    [book, the, buy, 'v*', [sue, d], will, 'T', c_e, think, v_unerg, [mary, d], 'T', c] Two derivations: (31) T to embedded C (c_e) realized as that. (33) c_e attracts subject Sue
    (43a) *What a silly book did Mary buy!
    (43b) What a silly book Mary bought!
    [book, silly, a, what:d, q, buy, 'v*', [mary, d], 'Tpast', c_Q] (43a) T to C blocked by CI: exclamative.
    (43b) Mary in edge of C.
    (47a) Bill asked what Mary bought
    (47b) *Bill asked what did Mary buy
    (47c) *Bill asked what that Mary bought
    [what:n, q, buy, 'v*', [mary, d], 'Tpast', c_Qe, ask, v_unerg, [bill, d], 'Tpast', c] Interrogative embedded C does not support T displacement.
    Note: same parse derived twice.
    Extra test cases
    Who was John meeting? [who, q, meet, 'v*', [john, d], prog, 'v~', 'Tpast', c_Q] Object wh-movement. Auxiliary be pied-piping.
    Who was meeting John? [john, d, meet, 'v*', [who, q], prog, 'v~', 'Tpast', c_Q] Subject wh-movement. Auxiliary be pied-piping.
    *Who do you think that saw John?
    Who do you think saw John?
    [john, d, see, 'v*', [who, q], 'Tpast', c_eQ, think, 'v_unerg', [you, d], 'T', c_Q] That-trace effect.
    Economy: no T to C.
    Who do you think that John saw?
    Who do you think John saw?
    [who, q, see, 'v*', [john, d], 'Tpast', c_eQ, think, 'v_unerg', [you, d], 'T', c_Q] Two derivations.
    No that-trace effect with object.