Minimalist Machine Derivations

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Examples:

  • A Minimalist account of reconstruction asymmetries (Munn, 1994). collapse
    Example Instruction stream (clickable) Notes
    (15a) The picture of himself1 that Bill1 likes
    The picture of himself1 Bill1 likes
    [bill, d, he, self, of, picture, d_rel, like, 'v*', 'T', c_rel, the] Two derivations.
    Doubling Constituent (DC) self-he-Bill object of preposition of.
    Object of likes is drel-picture-of-DC.
    drel has iRel but cannot check picture's uD feature.
    Bill restacked at Local Extent (LE) boundary headed by self.
    v* merges TOS Bill to its edge.
    crel has uT and uRel, and heads a LE.
    Two ways to satisfy crel using Pesetsky and Torrego (2001):
    (1) T to edge of crel => that
    (2) Nom Case-marked Bill to edge of crel => empty
    At the LE boundary, picture of self-he-Bill (uD) is restacked.
    Head picture of the TOS picture of self-he-Bill merges with crelP.
    picture labels (head merging with non-head).
    Stream the merges with SO headed by picture.
    [Spellout Note: Bill has been separately moved to the subject of the embedded clause. Thus although drel pictures of self-he-Bill is raised higher (to the edge of crel), Bill is pronounced in the lower position, not at the edge of the clause.]
    (15b) The picture of Bill1 that he1 likes
    The picture of Bill1 he1 likes
    [he, d, bill, d, of, picture, d_rel, like, 'v*', 'T', c_rel, the] Bill-he is not a regular DC (cf. he-Bill).
    [Note: in a regular DC, e.g. he-John, the pronominal he triggers DC merge in which John will be stacked but not made visible to stack operations such as probe-goal and internal merge until a LE boundary is encountered later on in the derivation.]
    he (uCase) is (visibly) stacked when merged with Bill.
    drel has iRel but cannot check picture's uD feature.
    v* merges he to its edge.
    crel has uT and uRel, and heads a LE.
    crel satisfied by either T or he (locally nom Case-marked) to C.
    At the LE boundary, picture of Bill-he (uD) is restacked.
    Extract head picture (uD) and merge with crelP.
    picture labels (head merging with non-head).
    Stream the merges with SO headed by picture.
    (19a) Pictures of himself1 are hard for John1 to like [john, d, he, self, of, pictures, d, pro, like, 'v*', 'Tinf', for, hard, 'v_be', 'T', c] Doubling Constituent (DC) pro-pictures of self-he-John with another DC self-he-John embedded inside.
    Determiner self heads a Local Extent (LE) phrase.
    Doubling constituent (DC) self-he-John triggers stacking of John.
    Embedded v* merges TOS John to its edge.
    Tinf does not value case for John.
    Assume for is a complementizer that probes and values Case. Then John's uCase feature is valued.
    Assume for heads a LE phase.
    Then at the LE boundary, pictures of self-he-John (with unvalued uCase) is re-stacked.
    Matrix vbe merges TOS pictures of self-he-John to its edge.
    [Spellout Note: John has been separately moved to the subject of the embedded clause. Thus although pictures of self-he-John is raised higher (to the matrix subject), John is pronounced in the lower clause, not the matrix clause.]
    (19b) Pictures of John1 are hard for him1 to like [he, d, john, d, of, pictures, d, pro, like, 'v*', 'Tinf', for, hard, 'v_be', 'T', c] DC pro-pictures of John-he with a (pseudo) DC John-he embedded inside.
    John-he is not a regular DC (cf. he-John).
    In particular, he (with unvalued uCase) is stacked when merged with John.
    [Note: in a regular DC, e.g. he-John, the pronominal he triggers DC merge in which John will be stacked but not made visible to stack operations such as probe-goal and internal merge until a LE boundary is encountered later on in the derivation.]
    Regular DC head pro merges with pictures of John-he.
    pictures of John-he is stacked but will not be available until the boundary of a LE has been built.
    Embedded v* merges non-TOS he to its edge.
    [Note: TOS pictures of John-he is not selected because it already has a theta-role assigned. Edge of v* is a theta-position.]
    Assume for is a complementizer that probes and values Case. Then he's uCase feature is valued.
    Assume for heads a LE phase.
    Then at the LE boundary, pictures of he-John (with unvalued uCase) is re-stacked.
    Matrix vbe merges TOS pictures of he-John to its edge.
    Extra test cases
    (x1) *The picture of him1 that Bill1 likes [bill, d, he, d, of, picture, d_rel, like, 'v*', 'T', c_rel, the] Doubling Constituent (DC) he-Bill.
    Bill is not restacked in time for merge to the edge of v* (no LE boundary).
    (x2) *Pictures of him1 are hard for John1 to like [john, d, he, d, of, pictures, d, pro, like, 'v*', 'Tinf', for, hard, 'v_be', 'T', c] DC he-John and DC pro-pictures of he-John.
    John is not restacked in time for merge to the edge of v* (no LE boundary).
  • Machine Parameters: expand

    Animation:
    (15b) The picture of Bill1 that he1 likes
    The picture of Bill1 he1 likes

    Derivation:
    (15b) The picture of Bill1 that he1 likes
    The picture of Bill1 he1 likes

    Stream:[[he!D],[d!case!N],[bill!D],[d!case!N],[of],[picture!D],[drel!case!N],[like],[v*!phi],[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):
    SO:[]

    Step 1.

    Head of stream [he!D] is the initial SO
    Stream:[[d!case!N],[bill!D],[d!case!N],[of],[picture!D],[drel!case!N],[like],[v*!phi],[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):
    SO:[he!D]

    Step 2.

    Merge [d!case!N] and [he!D]
    Label from [d!case!N] (head with an unvalued uF)
    Inherit interpretable feature(s) [f(phi,[3,sg,m])] from [he!D]
    [d!case!N] values D on [he!D]
    [he] values N on [d!case!N]
    Stream:[[bill!D],[d!case!N],[of],[picture!D],[drel!case!N],[like],[v*!phi],[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):
    SO:[d!case[d][he]]

    Step 3.

    Merge [bill!D] and [d!case[d][he]]
    Label from [bill!D] (head merging with a non-head)
    Push [d!case[d][he]] (unvalued uF) onto stack
    Stream:[[d!case!N],[of],[picture!D],[drel!case!N],[like],[v*!phi],[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[d!case[d][he]]
    SO:[bill!D[bill!D][d!case[d][he]]]

    Step 4.

    Merge [d!case!N] and [bill!D[bill!D][d!case[d..][he..]]]
    Label from [d!case!N] (head merging with a non-head)
    Inherit interpretable feature(s) [f(phi,[3,sg,n])] from [bill!D[bill!D][d!case[d..][he..]]]
    [d!case!N] values D on [bill!D[bill!D][d!case[d..][he..]]]
    [bill[bill][d!case[d..][he..]]] values N on [d!case!N]
    Stream:[[of],[picture!D],[drel!case!N],[like],[v*!phi],[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[d!case[d][he]]
    SO:[d!case[d][bill[bill][d!case[d][he]]]]

    Step 5.

    Merge [of] and [d!case[d][bill[bill..][d..]]]
    Label from [of] (head merging with a non-head)
    Theta-mark [d!case[d][bill[bill..][d..]]]
    [of] values obq case on [d!case[d][bill[bill..][d..]]]
    Stream:[[picture!D],[drel!case!N],[like],[v*!phi],[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[d!case[d][he]]
    SO:[of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d!case[d][he]]]]]

    Step 6.

    Merge [picture!D] and [of[of][d[d..][bill..]]]
    Label from [picture!D] (head merging with a non-head)
    Stream:[[drel!case!N],[like],[v*!phi],[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[d!case[d][he]]
    SO:[picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d!case[d][he]]]]]]

    Step 7.

    Merge [drel!case!N] and [picture!D[picture!D][of[of..][d..]]]
    Label from [drel!case!N] (head merging with a non-head)
    Inherit interpretable feature(s) [f(phi,[3,sg,n])] from [picture!D[picture!D][of[of..][d..]]]
    [picture!D[picture!D][of[of..][d..]]] values N on [drel!case!N]
    Push [picture!D] (unvalued uF) onto stack
    Stream:[[like],[v*!phi],[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[picture!D]
    [d!case[d][he]]
    SO:[drel!case[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d!case[d][he]]]]]]]

    Step 8.

    Merge [like] and [drel!case[drel][picture!D[picture..][of..]]]
    Label from [like] (head merging with a non-head)
    Theta-mark [drel!case[drel][picture!D[picture..][of..]]]
    Push [drel!case[drel][picture!D[picture..][of..]]] (unvalued uF) onto stack
    Stream:[[v*!phi],[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[drel!case[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d!case[d][he]]]]]]]
    [picture!D]
    [d!case[d][he]]
    SO:[like[like][drel!case[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d!case[d][he]]]]]]]]

    Step 9.

    Merge [v*!phi] and [like[like][drel!case[drel..][picture..]]]
    Label from [v*!phi] (head merging with a non-head)
    [drel!case[drel][picture!D[picture..][of..]]] values uPhi on [v*!phi]
    [v*] values acc case on [drel!case[drel][picture!D[picture..][of..]]]
    Stream:[[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d!case[d][he]]]]]]]
    [picture!D]
    [d!case[d][he]]
    SO:[v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d!case[d][he]]]]]]]]]

    Step 10.

    Relativized TOS search for unvaluediF(theta) skipping [drel[drel][picture!D[picture..][of..]]]
    Relativized TOS search for unvaluediF(theta) skipping [picture!D]
    Internal merge selected
    Merge [v*[v*][like[like..][drel..]]] and [d!case[d][he]]
    Label from [v*[v*][like[like..][drel..]]] (edge feature)
    Theta-mark [d!case[d][he]]
    Move [d!case[d][he]] (unvalued uF) to the front of the stack
    Stream:[[T!phi],[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[d!case[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d!case[d][he]]]]]]]
    [picture!D]
    SO:[v*[d!case[d][he]][v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]]]]

    Step 11.

    Merge [T!phi] and [v*[d!case[d..][he..]][v*[v*..][like..]]]
    Label from [T!phi] (head merging with a non-head)
    [d!case[d][he]] values uPhi on [T!phi]
    [T] values nom case on [d!case[d][he]]
    Stream:[[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[d[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]
    [picture!D]
    SO:[T[T][v*[d[d][he]][v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]]]]]

    Step 12.

    Internal merge selected
    Merge [T[T][v*[d..][v*..]]] and [d[d][he]]
    Label from [T[T][v*[d..][v*..]]] (edge feature)
    Stream:[[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[d[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]
    [picture!D]
    SO:[T[d[d][he]][T[T][v*[d[d][he]][v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]]]]]]

    Step 13.

    Merge [crel!rel!T] and [T[d[d..][he..]][T[T..][v*..]]]
    Label from [crel!rel!T] (head merging with a non-head)
    Relativized TOS search for iF(rel) skipping [d[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture!D[picture..][of..]]] values rel on [crel!rel!T]
    [d[d][he]] values T on [crel!T]
    Internal merge selected
    Merge [crel[crel][T[d..][T..]]] and [d[d][he]]
    Label from [crel[crel][T[d..][T..]]] (edge feature)
    Merge [crel[d[d..][he..]][crel[crel..][T..]]] and [drel[drel][picture!D[picture..][of..]]]
    Label from [crel[d[d..][he..]][crel[crel..][T..]]] (edge feature)
    Stream:[[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[d[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]
    [picture!D]
    SO:[crel[drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]][crel[d[d][he]][crel[crel][T[d[d][he]][T[T][v*[d[d][he]][v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

    Step 14.

    Local Extent boundary at [crel[drel[drel..][picture..]][crel[d..][crel..]]]
    Stack element [picture!D] with unvalued uF found
    New boundary (b) marker stacked
    Restack [picture!D] onto stack
    Stream:[[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[picture!D]
    b
    [d[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]
    SO:[crel[drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]][crel[d[d][he]][crel[crel][T[d[d][he]][T[T][v*[d[d][he]][v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

    Step 15.

    Merge [picture!D] and [crel[drel[drel..][picture..]][crel[d..][crel..]]]
    Label from [picture!D] (head merging with a non-head)
    Stream:[[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[picture!D]
    b
    [d[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]
    SO:[picture!D[picture!D][crel[drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]][crel[d[d][he]][crel[crel][T[d[d][he]][T[T][v*[d[d][he]][v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

    Step 16.

    Merge [the!case!N] and [picture!D[picture!D][crel[drel..][crel..]]]
    Label from [the!case!N] (head merging with a non-head)
    Inherit interpretable feature(s) [f(phi,[3,sg,n])] from [picture!D[picture!D][crel[drel..][crel..]]]
    [the!case!N] values D on [picture!D[picture!D][crel[drel..][crel..]]]
    [picture[picture][crel[drel..][crel..]]] values N on [the!case!N]
    Stream:[]
    Stack (⥥):[picture]
    b
    [d[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture[picture][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]
    SO:[the!case[the][picture[picture][crel[drel[drel][picture[picture][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]][crel[d[d][he]][crel[crel][T[d[d][he]][T[T][v*[d[d][he]][v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture[picture][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

    Parse:
    Spell-out:
    the picture of -obq bill he -s like (after morpheme realization)
    the picture of bill -obq he like -s (after affix-hop)
    the picture of bill -obq he like -s (after morpheme realization, stage 2)
    the picture of bill he likes  

    Backtrack

    Stream:[[crel!rel!T],[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[d[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]
    [picture!D]
    SO:[T[d[d][he]][T[T][v*[d[d][he]][v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]]]]]]
    re-doing step 13

    Step 17.

    [crel!T] attracts [T[d[d..][he..]][T[T..][v*..]]]
    Internal merge selected
    Merge [crel[crel][T[d..][T..]]] and [T]
    Label from [crel[crel][T[d..][T..]]] (edge feature)
    Merge [crel[T][crel[crel..][T..]]] and [drel[drel][picture!D[picture..][of..]]]
    Label from [crel[T][crel[crel..][T..]]] (edge feature)
    Stream:[[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[d[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]
    [picture!D]
    SO:[crel[drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]][crel[T][crel[crel][T[d[d][he]][T[T][v*[d[d][he]][v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

    Step 18.

    Local Extent boundary at [crel[drel[drel..][picture..]][crel[T..][crel..]]]
    Stack element [picture!D] with unvalued uF found
    New boundary (b) marker stacked
    Restack [picture!D] onto stack
    Stream:[[the!case!N]]
    Stack (⥥):[picture!D]
    b
    [d[d][he]]
    [drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]
    SO:[crel[drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]][crel[T][crel[crel][T[d[d][he]][T[T][v*[d[d][he]][v*[v*][like[like][drel[drel][picture!D[picture!D][of[of][d[d][bill[bill][d[d][he]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]